In September 2012 the ATO published over 60 private rulings dealing with GST issues on the Private Rulings Register.
This month I would like to focus on a private ruling made on the difficult issue of whether grants of financial assistance are consideration for taxable supplies and a private ruling made on the perennial issue of GST refunds.
Private ruling No. 1012140548318 – grants of financial assistance
This private ruling deals with the difficult issue of whether grants of financial assistance are consideration for taxable supplies. The private ruling is interesting because it involves the application of the Commissioner’s views in GSTR 2012/2 ‘Goods and services tax: financial assistance payments which was published earlier this year. My analysis of that ruling can be accessed here.
The facts of the private ruling were as follows. The applicant (A) was registered for GST and under the terms of a deed, B made a grant to A for the approved purpose, being the design, construction, delivery and installation of an item to be used in a specified location.
Clause A provided the following conditions for the grant:
- to use the grant only for the approved purpose
- to store, maintain, transport, clean, erect and dismantle the item
- to make the item available to authorised users
- to maintain proper financial records in relation to the grant
- to disclose the grant as a separate and identifiable item in your financial statements
- to provide annual audited financial statements
- to keep the other party informed on progress and provide other information as agreed
Clause B provided that A was required to publicly acknowledge the assistance of the grant from the other party
Clause C dealt with the possible repayment of the grant, at the option of the other party, if A failed to apply the grant for the approved purposes.
Clause D stated that the grant did not include GST, but B agreed that if GST was payable the additional amount for GST would be paid.
Having regard to GSTR 2012/2, the Commissioner concluded that, viewing the arrangement as a whole, A made a supply to B for consideration and GST was payable on the grant. The basis for this conclusion is that the terms of the deed go beyond providing a grant to enable A to acquire the item, which on its own could result in a mere expectation only (and no supply). The additional clauses (including the obligation to make the item available to authorised users and to store, maintain, transport, clean, erect and dismantle the item) evidence that there is more than a mere expectation. Further, it is only be building the item that the express obligations to maintain them and make them available to users can be fulfilled.
In coming to this conclusion, the Commissioner referred to the following example in GSTR 2012/2 where it was considered no supply was made because there is a mere expectation:
- A local tennis club is seeking funding to enable them to resurface their privately owned tennis courts. The local council provides financial assistance to the tennis club on the basis that the money is only used for the resurfacing of the tennis courts.
- The local council has an expectation that the works will be carried out. However, as there is no binding obligation on the tennis club to actually carry out the resurfacing of the courts, and there are no other goods or services passing between the parties there is no supply to the local council
As discussed in my analysis of the Ruling, the reasoning behind this example appears to be that the agreement with the local tennis club is not binding and it creates expectations alone. This may be a simplification of the arrangement between the parties, which in my view would necessarily involve a binding agreement, including the following terms (whether express or implied):
- the funds will be used for no other purpose than to resurfacing the tennis courts; and
- the funds will be repaid if the funds were not used for that purpose
If not, the payment would simply be a gift and the tennis club would be free to spend the money as it saw fit, including retaining the money.
The justification for departing from this example in the private ruling appears to the presence of additional obligations on A. However, those obligations only come into effect if A actually uses the grant to acquire the item. There are no obligations on A to actually acquire the item, and in this regard it is difficult to see how a distinction can properly be made with the example of the local tennis club.
What this private ruling does show is the difficulty of drawing a line between those arrangements which, while being enforceable legal arrangements, involve no supply because there is simply an expectation on a recipient of the funds to do something, and those arrangements where there is an obligation on the recipient to do something.
The recent decision of the High Court in Commissioner of Taxation v Qantas Airways Ltd  HCA 41 may also raise difficulties with the Commissioner’s approach in GSTR 2012/2. Where a party receives a grant in return for entering into a deed (and thereby entering into legal obligations), applying the reasoning of the majority (that the airline made a taxable supply upon entry into contractual obligations), it is difficult to see how there could not a be a taxable supply.
Private Ruling No. 101224509666 – GST refunds
The register shows that a number of private rulings were published on whether the Commissioner would exercise his discretion in s 105-65 of Schedule 1 to the TAA to refund overpaid GST. This ruling is interesting because it deals with the difficult question of taxpayers having to reimburse recipients for the overpaid GST before being entitled to a refund of the GST (and thereby be exposed to the cash flow issues and also the risk of the Commissioner refusing to pay the refunds).
In this case, where the recipients were not registered nor required to be registered for GST, the applicant proposed the following arrangement because it claimed that it was not in a financial position to first reimburse its customers:
- the applicant would send a letter to each recipient notifying them of their entitlement to a refund of GST, to which those recipients must respond within a specified time frame and also agree to being charged an administration fee, which would be offset against the refund entitlement
- based on the response of the customers, the applicant could confirm the exact quantum of the GST refund to be claimed (i.e., the refund claim would equate to the claims made by recipients)
- any refund paid by the Commissioner would be held in an audited trust account for the benefit of customers and the funds would be solely used to refund GST to customers (subject only to the administration fees)
The Commissioner denied to exercise the discretion to pay the refunds, for the following reasons:
- the Commissioner will generally not exercise the discretion in cases where the supplier has not reimbursed the unregistered recipients a corresponding amount of the overpaid GST, unless there are countervailing reasons for doing so
- the applicant has not presented any countervailing reasons why the discretion should be exercised – in citing cash flow reasons, the applicant has not demonstrated that its circumstances are exceptional or different to any other entity that may refer to receive a refund in advance.
- if the Commissioner was to exercise the discretion, it would result in increased costs of administration for the Commissioner – he would need to take appropriate measures to ensure that all the terms of the arrangement were complied with both before and after the refund was paid, otherwise there was a risk that the refund would not be passed on to end consumers and this would result in a windfall gain to the applicant.
In denying the discretion, the Commissioner was clearly concern about setting a precedent. As noted in the private ruling:
If the Commissioner were to exercise the discretion in your circumstances, then all future requests for similar arrangements would have to be considered accordingly. The wording of the legislation, and the public ruling, indicate that this is not the scope or intention of the legislation.
The Commissioner was also clearly concerned about having to assume an administrative burden in ensuring that the refund was eventually paid to the recipients. In circumstances where the applicant has entered into legally binding arrangements to pay the refunds to customers, and the refunds are placed in a trust account solely for the benefit of those customers, whether the Commissioner should properly undertake this administrative burden may be doubted.
In any event, this private ruling shows that the Commissioner is taking a very strict approach to the requirement that the overpaid GST first be reimbursed to the customers before any refund is paid to the supplier.
LIST OF RULINGS
- GST and forestry management investment scheme – whether the supply of establishment services by manager to participants a taxable supply or input taxed supply – whether the grant of a put option by manager a taxable supply
- GST and the disposal of capita assets – whether GST payable on disposal of capital assets on the ceasing of business
- GST implications of payments to directors nominated by appointing bodies – whether GST implications where applicant pays fees to directors nominated by appointing bodies and those fees are passed on to the employer of the director
- GST and grants of financial assistance – whether a grant of financial assistance pursuant to terms of deed between A and B constitutes consideration for a taxable supply
- GST and the supply of a portion of a specified crop – whether liquidator of A is making taxable supplies on behalf of growers when it supplies a portion of the specified crop to B but the rights of the growers were extinguihsed as a condition precedent to the sale
- GST and financial assistance payments – whether A is making a taxable to C when it receives a capital contribution payment to enable A to continue to manufacture product
- GST and international services – whether GST payable on the supply of storage and delivery services to international company for goods brought into Australia for distribution to customers
- GST and purchase of software licence over the internet – whether acquisition of software licences through the internet from overseas supplier subject to GST
- GST and larger size garbage bin charge – whether additional charge levied to ratepayer for upgraded garbage service consideration for a taxable supply
- GST and supply of renewable energy systems – what is the correct amount of GST to remit where sell renewable energy systems to customers and a discount is provided in exchange for the customers assigning their rights to Small-Scale Technology Certificates to an unrelated third party aggregator
- GST – subscription and advertising services for non-residents – whether supplies made by A (Australian company) to foreign subscribers and advertisers subject to GST where A provides subscription and advertising services from its foreign website
- GST and supply of access to online content – whether the supply of access to online contents in website to subscribers in Australia be a taxable supply
- GST and expert opinion report writing services – whether GST payable on supply of expert opinion report services where deal with non-resident’s Australian lawyers and address invoices to non-resident entity and send them to address in Australia
- GST and supply of facilitation services and management services – whether Australian company operating a website as an advertising and sale platform, make a taxable supply to the features businesses who are Australian residents, whether make a taxable supply to end users when give out cash prizes for participating in the site
- GST and renewable energy certificates – what is the proper GST treatment of the sale of solar power equipment where paid for in cash and assignment of customer’s right to create renewable energy certificates
- GST and the supply of consultancy services – whether the supply of consultancy services to non-resident a taxable supply – whether the supply of rights to non-resident to use intellectual property outside Australia a taxable supply – whether supply of licence to non-resident in return for royalty payments subject to GST
- GST and attribution of taxable supply of solar power – whether GST payable on initial issue of tax invoice for deposit and then on the issue of monthly tax invoices
- GST and supply of services by overseas based supplier – whether supply of services by overseas company to Australian based entities taxable supplies
- GST and forestry management investment scheme – whether investor carrying on an enterprise – whether entitled to input tax credits for GST imposed by manager in respect of establishment services, grant of a specified right, issue of land unit trusts, various acquisitions paid out of trust account
- GST and Renewable Energy Certificates – whether A is entitled to claim input tax credits in connection with the acquisition of renewable energy certificates where renewable energy systems provided to customers who then become entitled to renewable energy certificates which are assigned to A
- GST input tax credits – whether it is possible to claim GST if acquired machinery but not started to get sales
- GST and going concerns – whether entitled to an input tax credit on the purchase of a passenger transport business where parties agreed that the supply is of a going concern
- GST and entertainment expenses – whether government entity entitled to claim input tax credits for entertainment expenses
- GST and solar power – whether entitled to input tax credits if purchase solar system from retailer/installer – whether entitled to input tax credits if purchase solar system from house owner – whether GST is payable on assignment of rights to create STC to a solar system retailer/installer – whether entitled to input tax credits if leased roof space from home owner – whether entitled to input tax credit on purchase of electricity from retailer – whether GST payable on sale of electricity to retailer in return for FIT – whether GST payable on sale of solar system to home owner
- GST and funding agreements – whether entitled to an input tax credit for funding provided to research participants
- GST and acquisition of goods from an overseas entity – whether supply of goods to Ausco by overseas company (where goods purchased in Australia and remain in Australia) a taxable supply for the purposes of s 11-5(b) of the GST Act
- GST and requirement to register – whether applicant carrying on an enterprise where buying a block of land to construct family home and partially finance the cost of construction by constructing two houses on the land, living in one, and selling the other
- GST and sale of property with mooring facility – whether the applicant liable to pay GST on proposed sale of residential property that includes a mooring facility
- GST and the sale of a leased commercial property – whether the sale of leased commercial property to a related party will be taxable or the going concern
- GST and supply of a going concern – whether sale of interest in joint venture carrying out construction and development activities a going concern
- GST and application of margin scheme – what is the consideration for margin scheme purposes where A nominates C as purchaser of land and A reimburses C for deposit and two instalments paid – whether C entitled for input tax credits for reimbursement amount paid to A
- GST and the supply of a going concern – whether supply of leasehold interest over real property a going concern
- GST and sale of lots created by subdivision – whether GST payable on the subdivision and sale of vacant lots where land acquired and used for rental purposes
- GST and supplies to disabled clients – applicant is a Disability Service Provider for people with disabilities – whether GST payable if purchase and provide a holiday for clients – whether GST payable on administration charge – whether can claim input tax credits for the cost of the holiday
- GST and a laxative product – whether GST payable on sale of a laxative product – whether GST free as the supply of a medicinal preparation under s 38-50 of the GST Act
- GST and agents arranging overseas supplies – whether commission charged for services provided by travel agent for the arranging of overseas travel GST-free or taxable
- GST and food – whether the supply of food products made from white bread dough with a savoury filling GST-free or taxable
- GST and medical aids and applicances – whether supply of sleep positioning system GST-free or taxable
- GST and professional trade education course – whether supply of a diploma course by non-profit entity GST-free as an education course under s 38-85 of the GST Act
- GST and food – whether sale of imported food product GST-free
- GST and export of goods – whether the sale of goods to A is a GST-free supply when A exports the goods
- GST free medical services – whether supplies of medical services provided by A on behalf of B (provider of public health and health related services) under initiate to increase access to primary care serves in rural and remote areas GST-free
- GST and supply of education course – whether supply of training course on behalf of Registered Training Organisation a GST-free supply or taxable
- GST and food – whether supply of food product served cold (but containing an ingredient that if sold separately would be taxable) is GST-free
- GST and first aid courses – whether GST payable on supplies of first aid courses
- GST and supply of counselling services – whether making a GST-free supply under s 38-10(1) of the GST Act where supplying counselling services direct to clients or under arrangement where requested by organisation to provide services to individual employees or a group of employees
- GST and refund of GST on car parts for totally and permanently incapacitated veterans – whether applicant entitled to a refund of GST paid on car parts charged by car repairer for repairs to car
- Refund of GST – whether the Commissioner will exercise discretion in s 105-65 to allow refund of overpaid GST on certain credit card surcharge fees due to oversight with accounting policies and procedures – whether GST borne by customers
- GST and refund of overpaid GST – whether Commissioner will exercise discretion in s 105-65 to refund overpaid GST when incorrectly accounted for GST in activity statements for input taxed supplies of residential premises
- Refund of GST – whether Commissioner will exercise discretion under s 105-65 to refund overpaid GST where fraudulent transactions contributed to overpayments of GST and duplicate transactions caused overpayments of GST
- Entitlement to refund of overpaid GST – whether Commissioner will exercise discretion in s 105-65 to refund overpaid GST where not have the commercial ability to refund the recipients without first receiving a refund from the Commissioner – where refunded amount to be held in a trust account for the benefit of customers and an administration fee will be charged
- Restrictions on refunds of overpaid GST – whether Commissioner will exercise discretion in s 105-65 to refund overpaid GST with respect to tickets sold by not-for-profit entity for Event which runs at a loss – whether GST passed on to recipient
- GST and person with disabilities – whether applicant entitled to purchase a car GST-free under s 38-350(1) of the GST Act
- GST status of fees, charges and taxes described in the Agreement – whether certain fees charged by Austalian government entity within Division 81 of the GST Act
- Cash accounting for GST when using the receipts method for income tax – if accounting on a cash basis for income tax, can you continue to account for GST on a cash basis if exceeded the cash turnover threshold